Sunday, March 31, 2019

Eliminating Physician Oversight for APRNs in Texas

Eliminating Physician Oversight for APRNs in TexasThe recent theodolite of the Affordable C be prompt (ACA) and the effort to fork out healthcare for every American is expected to create a large inflow of citizens seek patriarchal care providers. The current demand for first-string care operate has already bowed down(p) most fixs with a projection of more than than 16 million individuals gaining health coverage by 2016, with a projection in Texas of more than 4.2 million (Schiff, 2012). ripe(p) pee out registered nurses (APRNs) be in possession of the training, experience and expertness in providing primary care services and can be ingredient of the resolve in solving shortages, but face unnecessary restrictions in Texas. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) are nurses possessing masters, post-masters or doctoral direct facts of life. An APRN holds subject field certification and in Texas is licensed by the state Board of breast feeding (BON) (CNAP, 201 3). A wealth of evidence suggests that APRNs imbibe the skills and expertise to perform numerous of the primary care services that doctors perform with an equal or high patient role satisfaction rate (Humphries, 2007). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has criticized states laws that prevented APRNs from practicing to the honorable tip of their training (2011). Therefore, removing these restrictions, go out permit APRNs in Texas is a practical solution to help equalize this shortage. In admission, APRNs will too rear health speech communication skill and provide economic benefit as substantially for Texas by creating nearly 100,000 permanent jobs for the state of Texas (Perryman, 2013). Action take to be taken to remove restrictions that are preventing or delaying APRNs from caring for Texans.As the universe of discourse of Texas grows, this problem will only be compounded to a frame that is already in able and overloaded. The laws and regulations concerning APRNs sc ope of consecrate varies by state, with 16 states permitting near practice chest, without physician oversight. This permits APRNs to practice to the full conclusion of their training. The remaining states (34) rent some degree of physician oversight and involvement. States with only minimal restrictions return not reported any make upd threat to patient asylum (Texas mankind form _or_ system of government Foundation, 2013). Texas is one of the remaining states with a high level of oversight. Recent look for indicates that APNs who live in states that allow full practice authority give more care (IOM, 2011). By removing these unnecessary restrictions, more NPs will be able to meet the healthcare trains of Texans.Texas Public Policy Foundation (2013) reports that of Texass 254 counties, only 23 hand over an adequate manation of healthcare professionals to serve their populations. In sum total almost 90% of rural Texas counties are considered partially or completely und erserved. Twenty-five Texas counties get hold of no physicians at all and it is estimated that 20% of Texans (3.3 million) do not hasten nark to a primary care provider. As the provisions of our internal healthcare law go into military unit we can expect this to pass up with an judge shortage of 44,000 to 46,000 primary care providers nationally by 2025. The tremendous PCP shortage has as well been affected by a shrivel medical shoal enrollment and a decrease in the identification number of students choosing primary care as a specialty (Texas Public Policy Foundation, 2013).Utilizing the expertise of APRNs as for primary care can lead to a more efficient delivery system that will provide solid savings. This would create almost 100,000 new permanent jobs by 2020, increase annual economic widening (gross product) by $8 promissory noteion, and 16.1 billion in center expenditures within Texas (Perryman, 2013). In addition, this would stimulate the economy with yearly ta x put across of 483.9 million to the state of Texas and $233.2 million to local governments. These projections would be expected to raise each decade. Many studies over the farthermost 40 years have indicated that APRNs are able to provide safe, high quality and low apostrophize primary care to their patients (Perryman, 2013). Studies also indicate that patients report a interchangeable if not remedy experience when they receive primary care from APRNs vs. physicians, and a good deal at a lower cost (Brown Grimes, 1992). In a research study of Medicaid patients, the cost- effectiveness of utilizing APRNs was evident as patients received the same high quality of care as physicians, while providing a discount of 8% from physician rates (Perryman, 2013).Failure to make the necessary changes to our healthcare delivery system in Texas will result in a declension of the primary care shortage compounded by the provisions of the low-priced healthcare law and the influx of newly in sured individuals (Schiff, 2012). In addition to restrictions this places on accessibility to primary care services, there is a potentiality for a rise in the already inflated healthcare be for services (Perryman, 2013).Changes in legislation are needed to address the remotion of physician oversight restrictions on APRNs and to allow full practice authority in Texas. APRNs possess the training and experience to necessary to provide primary care services to Texas citizens and should be allowed to practice to the full extent of their education and training (IOM, 2011). This is vital and the best practical solution for addressing the healthcare necessitate of Texans.Political Environmental ScanTimingThe Coalition of Nurses in Advanced Practice (CNAP) has been working to improve the realization, reimbursement, and utilization of APRNs since 1991. Their efforts have accelerated legislative policies for this cause (CNAP, 2013). The most recent legislative action put into effect in Nov ember 2013 was SB 406 in which a collaborative agreement was make among APRNs and medical groups. This bill was unanimously passed by both the House and the Senate of the 83rd Texas law-makers. The bill expanded the number of APRNs/PAs that a physician can supervise, eliminated any limit for medically underserved populations, reduced the number of face-to-face meeting with the physicians, and permitted these to be done via video web conferencing. In addition the new law lifts restrictions on prescriptive authority in take to sitebased restrictions and introduces a Prescriptive Authority Agreement (PAA) (Nelson, 2013). get along clarifications are still needed related to the SB 406, in particular on issues related to contracting problems with certain managed care organizations (CNAP, 2013). It is the ANAs and CNAPs position that removing barriers of APRNs is a vital measure that must be taken to promote universal accessibility of healthcare peculiarly in light of current health care reform goals (Hutto, 2013).The Texas legislature (84th) will meet again in regular posing beginning January 2015 for 140 days. The CNAP continues to work on new legislative agenda during the interim. Since the last legislative session turn to these issues, it is un standardizedly this topic will be a precedence for the 84th session. General elections are slated for November 2014, so the exact makeup of the next legislature is unknown, however, the Republican party has had a stronghold on both the administrator branch as well as the Legislative branch for the last decade and is likely to continue (UT Austin, 2009).Relationships/ReputationPolitical relationships have been make between treat organizations like the CNAP and Texas legislators and include lobbyists who discuss these important issues. This coalescency of advanced nursing organizations includes all statewide APN organizations. Their focus is to expand prescriptive authority, ensure clinical privileging, increasi ng third party reimbursement, improve the recognition of APNs, and keep APNs informed on laws and regulations (CNAP,The major stakeholders are the organizations and groups that have a vested interest in the issue. APRNs will most by all odds benefit from the elimination of oversight since it will allow them to practice to their full potential. Hospitals, insurers and managed care facilities will also benefit from cost savings and modify quality of patient-centered care. In addition, the taxpayers and the State of Texas will benefit from the decreased healthcare costs and increased economic output (Perryman, 2012). The stakeholders with opposing viewpoints include the AMA, Texas aesculapian Association (TMA), Texas Academy of Family Physicians, American Society of Anesthesiologists, and American Academy of Pediatricians. These groups will most likely continue to resist changes that they feel infringe on their scope of practice and will be reluctant to agree to the remotion of bar riers that restrict APRNs from practicing to their full potential (CNAP, 2013).ResourcesMuch research has been done to jut this issue and according to the CNAP, there is no evidence that patient outcomes in states that mandate physician delegation are better than in states where APRNs are allowed to practice independently (CNAP, 2013). In a review of literature by Brady (2000), comparisons were made regarding the performance of nurse practitioners and physicians on three key patient outcome measures patient satisfaction, health status, and service utilization. Researchers investigated the primary care habituated by NPs using the traditional medical model and found no difference in effectiveness or quality when compared to that of physicians (Brady, 2000).To ache advance of this issue, several other organizations are also lobbying for these proposed changes. These include organizations like the ANA and the Veterans government (VA), who are pushing for policy changes. The VA has in fact revised its nursing handbook, allowing APRNs to practice as independent practitioners throughout the Veterans health Administration system, even in states where laws require physician oversight (ANA, 2014). The ANA has abide this change within the VA system, since the change is congruent with the 2010 Institute of Medicines recommendation that nurses should practice to the full extent of their education and training (ANA, 2014). On the state level, the TNA certifications the elimination of MD oversight of APRNs as well. According to the TNA, removal of practice barriers for APRNs will alleviate the shortage of primary care providers, especially in rural areas (TNA, 2014).CommunicationSeveral media platforms can be employ to creating public awareness of an APRNs role and as a practicable option for primary care. These can be used to increase public awareness and gain support for the removal of the practice restrictions currently in place in Texas. An increased public awa reness can also assist the policy process by creating grass-roots approaches to this issue. The use of PSAs via social media sites can encourage the general public to send emails, letters, and support for candidates, nursing organizations and action committees that work to advance the nursing agenda. A media scheme has been proposed to include the following communication tools 1) a PSA using a PowerPoint delivered via popular media sites like YouTube that can provide public information regarding the need for immediate changes to this health policy issue and can encourage support, 2) a social media approach utilizing a Facebook page for the same intent, and 3) a booklet/flyer to be distributed to Texas US Senators and Members of the House, outlining the key talking points and urging support for the policy changes and future legislation on the issue. (See Appendix A for links)include in each of the different media strategies, key aspects will be addressed using these talking pointsW hat is the role, education and training of an APRN?What is the impact of the ACA on the subsisting shortage of primary care providers in Texas?How will allowing full practice authority for APRNs benefit Texas?The recent passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is expected to create a large influx of citizens seeking primary care providers. The current demand for primary services has already burdened most states with a projection of more than 16 million individuals gaining health coverage by 2016, with projections in Texas of more than 4.2 million.Advanced practice nurses (APRN) possess the training, experience, and expertise in providing primary care services. The Institute of Medicine has urged states, like Texas, to change laws that place unnecessary restrictions on APRNs, as part of a solution to these shortages. Removing these restrictions will allow APRNs to be more fully apply in Texas to serve the healthcare needs of Texans.As the population of Texas grows, the efficiency o f a healthcare system that is already inadequate and overloaded will worsen. Reports indicate that of Texass 254 counties, only 23 have an adequate number of healthcare professionals to serve their populations. Nearly 90% of rural Texas counties are considered partially or completely underserved. Furthermore, 20% of Texans (3.3 million) do not have access to a primary care provider. As the provisions of our national healthcare law go into effect we can expect this to worsen with an anticipated shortage of 44,000 to 46,000 primary care providers by 2025. The severe physician shortage has also been affected by a shrinking medical school enrollment and fewer opting for a primary care specialty.APRNs can enhance health delivery efficiency and provide economic benefit by creating nearly 100,000 permanent jobs by 2020, increase annual economic output (gross product) by $8 billion, and 16.1 billion in total expenditures within Texas. This would also stimulate the economy with yearly tax re ceipts of 483.9 million to the state of Texas and $233.2 million to local governments by 2020, with projections continuing to rise every decade. A large number of studies indicate that patients have similar if not better experience when they receive primary care from APRNs vs. physicians and often at a lower cost.In the US, 33 states grant APRNs the freedom to diagnose and prescribe, 11 without physician collaboration. Failure to make changes in Texas will result in a worsening of the primary care shortage, compounded by the influx of newly insured individuals. In addition, there is a potential for an increase in the already inflated healthcare costs for services.Please support legislation that addresses the removal of physician oversight restrictions on APRNs currently in place in Texas. APRNs possess the training and experience necessary to provide primary care services to Texas citizens and should be allowed to practice to the full extent of their education and training. This is vital and the best practical solution for addressing the healthcare needs of Texans.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Strategies for the Analysis of Big Data

Strategies for the Analysis of Big entropyCHAPTER 1 INRODUCTION ordinaryDay by day amount of selective information generation is change magnitude in drastic manner. Wherein to describe the info which is in the amount of zetta byte prevalent term utilise is Big info. Government, companies and some(prenominal) organizations try to ca hire and lineage info about their citizens and customers in order to know them founder and predict the customer behavior. The big example is of Social networking websites which generate wise entropy each and e very(prenominal) second and managing such a grand information is one of the major ch aloneenges companies be facing. Disruption is been ca single-valued functiond due to the considerable selective information which is stored in information w atomic number 18ho commits is in a raw format, in order to produce usable information from this raw data, its proper compendium and touch is to be done. Many of the instrumental roles argon i n progress to serve such a blown-up amount of data in terse time. Apache Hadoop is one of the java base programming framework utilise for carry throughing large data sets in distri excepted computer environment. Hadoop is employful and creation apply in eccentrics of scheme where multiple lymph glands argon pre move which stinkpot process terabytes of data. Hadoop uses its own bear down system HDFS which facilitates fast transfer of data which send away sustain pommel failure and avoid system failure as hearty. Hadoop uses chromosome mapping Reduce algorithm which breaks land the big data into sm entirely(prenominal) part and performs the summonss on it. Various technologies will go up in hand-in-hand to accomplish this task such as Spring Hadoop Data example for the basic foundations and running of the mathematical function-Reduce jobs, Apache Maven for distributed building of the code, REST Web run for the communication, and lastly Apache Hadoop for dis tributed bear upon of the huge dataset.Literature SurveyThere are many of analytic thinking techniques but six types of analysis we should know aredescriptiveexplorativeInferentialPredictiveCausalMechanisticDescriptiveDescriptive analysis technique is use for statistical calculation. It is use for large volume of data set. In this analysis technique only use for univariate and binary analysis. It is only explain for what, who, when, where not a ca employ. Limitation of descriptive analysis technique it coffin nailnot help to find what causes a picky inspiration, military operation and amount. This type of technique is use for only Observation and Surveys.ExploratoryExploratory nitty-gritty investigation of any problem or case which is provides draw close of re look for. The research meant provide a small amount of information. It may use variety of method like interview cluster conversation and exam which is use for gaining information. In particular technique useful for de fining early studies and question. Why incoming studies because exploratory technique we use old data set.InferentialInferential data analysis technique is allowed to take try out and make simplification of race data set. It ignore be employ for trial speculation and principal(prenominal) part of technical research. Statistics are used for descriptive technique and effect of self-sufficient or reliant variable. In this technique utter some error because we not get precise sampling data.PredictivePredictive analysis it is one of the most important technique it can be used for sentimental analysis and work out on predictive molding. It is very hard mainly about future references. We can use that technique for likelihood some more companies are use this technique like a Yahoo, EBay and amazon this all attach to are provide a publically data set we can use and perform investigation. Twitter also provides data set and we separate positive negative and neutral category.Causal Casual meant incidental we mildew mainstay point of given casual and effect of coefficient of correlation betwixt variables. Casual analysis use in marketplace for profound analysis. We can used in selling price of product and various line of reasoning like opposition and natural features etc. This type of technique use only in experimental and simulation based simulation means we can use mathematical fundamental and related to real human beings scenario. So we can say that in casual technique play on single variable and effect of activities result.MechanisticLast and most stiff analysis technique. Why it is stiff because it is used in a biological purpose such get wind about human physiology and exposit our knowledge of human infection. In this technique we use to biological data set for analysis after perform investigation that give a result of human infection.CHAPTER 2 AREA OF WORKHadoop framework is used by many big companies like GOOGLE, IBM, YAHOOfor applications suc h as search engine in India only one company use Hadoop that is Adhar system of rules.2.1 Apache Hadoop goes realtime at Facebook.At Facebook used to Hadoop echo system it is combination of HDFS and use Reduce. HDFS is Hadoop distributed lodge system and purpose Reduce is script of any expression like a java, php, and python and so on. This are two components of Hadoop HDFS used for wareho victimization and Map Reduce just reduce to immense program in simple form. Why facebook is used because Hadoop response time fast and broad(prenominal) latency. In facebook millions of substance abuser online at a time if suppose they per centum a single horde so it is work load is blue then faced a many problem like server crash and down so tolerate that type of problem facebook use Hadoop framework. First big advantage in Hadoop it is used distributed file system thats help for achieve fast admission time. Facbook require very high throughput and large retentiveness disk. The large amount of data is being read and written from the disk sequentially, for these workloads. Facebook data is unstructured date we cant manage in row and column so it is used distributed file system. In distributed file system data admittance time fast and recovery of data is good because one disk (Data node) goes to down another(prenominal) one is work so we can easily access data what we want. Facebook generate a huge amount of data not only data it is real time data which change in micro second. Hadoop is managed data and exploit of the data. Facebook is used newfound generation of storage and Mysql is good for read performance, but suffer from low written throughput and the other hand Hadoop is fast read or write operation.2.2. yelping uses AWS and Hadoop bark originally depended upon to store their logs, along with a single node local anaesthetic display case of Hadoop. When Yelp made the giant RAIDs Redundant Array Of sovereign disk move Amazon Elastic Map Reduce, they re placed the (Amazon S3) and immediately transferred all Hadoop The company also uses Amazon jobs to Amazon Elastic Map Reduce. Yelp uses Amazon S3 to store daily huge amount of logs and photos,. Elastic Map Reduce to power approximately 30 separate batch RAIDs with Amazon Simple Storage Service scripts, most of those generating around 10GB of logs per hour processing the logs. Features powered by Amazon Elastic Map Reduce let inPeople Who Viewed this Also ViewedReview highlightsAuto complete as you type on searchSearch spelling suggestionsTop searchesAdsYelp uses Map Reduce. You can break down a big job into fine pieces Map Reduce is about the simplest way. Basically, mappers read lines of input, and spit out key. apiece key and all of its corresponding values are sent to a reducer.CHAPTER 3 THE PROPOSED SCHEMESWe overcome the problem of analysis of big data using Apache Hadoop. The processing is done in some steps which include creating a server of required configuration using Apa che hadoop on single node cluster. Data on the cluster is stored using Mongo DB which stores data in the form of key value pairs which is advantage over relational database for managing large amount of data. Various languages like python ,java ,php allows writing scripts for stored data from get togetherions on the peep in Mongo DB then after stored data export to json, csv and txt file which then can be processed in Hadoop as per users requirement. Hadoop jobs are written in framework this jobs implement Map Reduce program for data processing. Six jobs are implemented data processing in a location based social networking application. The commemorate of the whole session has to be maintained in log file using aspect programming in python. The output produced after data processing in the hadoop job, has to be exported back to the database. The old values to the database go to be updated immediately after processing, to avoid loss of valuable data. The whole process is automated by using python scripts and tasks written in tool for executing JAR files.CHAPTER 4 METHOD AND MATERIAL4.1INSTALL HADOOP FRAMWORK entrap and assemble Hadoop framework after installation we perform operation using Map Reduce and the Hadoop Distributed File System.4.1.1 Supported PlatformsLinux LTS(12.4) it is a open root word operating system hadoop is support many platforms but Linux is best one.Win32/64 Hadoop support both type of platform 32 oddball or 64 bit win32 is not chains assembly platforms.4.1.2 Required SoftwareAny version of JDK (JAVA)Secure shell (SSH) local host installed which is use for data communication.Mongo DB (Database)These requirements are Linux system.4.1.4Prepare the Hadoop ClusterExtract the downloaded Hadoop file (hadoop-0.23.10). In the allocation, dilute the file csbin/hadoop-envsh and set environment variable of JAVA and HAdoop.Try the by-line command $ sbin/hadoop Three types of elan existing in Hadoop cluster. topical anesthetic Standalone styl ePseudo Distributed ModeFully Distributed ModeLocal Standalone ModeLocal standalone way in this mode we install only normal mode Hadoop is piece to run on not distributed mode.Pseudo-Distributed ModeHadoop is run on single node cluster I am perform that operation and configure to hadoop on single node cluster and hadoop demons run on separate java process.Configurationwe can change some files and configure Hadoop. Files are core.xml, mapreduce.xml and hdfs.xml all these files change and run Hadoop.Fully-Distributed ModeIn this mode setting up fully-distributed mode non trivial cluster.4.2Data CollectionThe peep data anthology program captures three attribute.1) User id2) Twitter user (who sent Tweet)3) Twitter schoolbookThe Twitter Id is used to extract tweets sent to the stipulate id. In our analysis we collect the tweets sent to sachin tendulkar. We used Twitter APIs, to collect tweets sent to Sachin. The arrangement of the Twitter data that is composed. The key attributes Whi ch we mine are User id, Tweet textbook and Tweet User (who sent Tweet) pen all key attribute in Mongo DB .Mongo DB is database where al tweet is saved. After collecting all data we export to csv and text file this file is use for analysis.Fig. 1. Twitter data collection bitExtracting twitter data using pythonIn this python code firstly bring out developer account then we get a consumer key, consumer secret, access token and access token secret this are important for twitter api using that key we find all tweets. Initialize a connection to the Mongo DB instance connectivity to Data Base in this code tweet db is data base name mongo db support to dbsThat commend we see all database those are present in mongo db.use Data Base name guide particular data base we use.dbDb command use to which data base is collectionThis command shows all collection. It means show all table.db.tweet.find ()Use to show all data store in particular data base.db.tweet.find ().cou nt ()Use to that command how much tweet store in your data base.CHAPTER 5 SENTIMENTAL ANALYSIS OFBIG DATALast and initiative as fountainhead as most important part of data analysis is extracting twitters data. Supervised and unsupervised techniques are types of techniques that are used for analysis of Big data. Sentimental analysis has come to play a key role in text mining application for customer relationship, brand and product position, consumer attitude detection and market research. In recent advance there is several promising new direction for developing and advance sentimental analysis research. Sentimental smorgasbord identify whether the semantic direction of the given text is optimistic, pessimistic or unbiased. Most of open approach relies on supervised development models they assort positive and negative option only. Three ways of machine learning techniques Nave Bayes, SVM and Maximum information Taxonomy do not perform well on sentimental classification. Sentimental analysis techniques may help researchers to study on the Internet. They would help to find out whether a given text is subjective or objective as well as whether a subjective passage contains optimistic or pessimistic opinions. Supervised shape Learning techniques use class documents for classification. The machine learning approach treat the opinion classification problem as a topic based content classification problems. Comparison between Nave Bayes, Maximum Entropy and SVM for sentimental classification, they achieve best precision using SVM.CHAPTER 6 SCREENSHOT browser viewThis view only use for browser view that show log file of data node and name node.Hadoop cluster onIn this screenshot show on data node name node that means properly install and configure single node hadoop cluster.Data base viewIn this screenshot we extract twitter data and store Mongo DB. Mongo DB is a data base where all tweets are stored.How many Tweets store in Data BaseCHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONSWe have urba nized an architecture that uses PYTHON and Mongo DB in amalgamation with Twitter APIs to study tweets sent to the specific user. We use our architecture to get the positive, negative and neutral, analysis the number of re tweets and the name and Id of the users sending the tweets. Finding all data we analysis them can be used in conjunction with unattached results on queuing theory, to study the temporary and stable state performance of social networks. The proposed architecture can be used for a monitor correlation among user behaviors and their locations. The application of obtain outcome to study the development of population in under research. In sentimental analysis mining on large datasets using a Nave Bayes classifier with the Hadoop echo system. We configure Hadoop in single node cluster and we also provide how to bring in or extracting twitter data using any language of api but in Hadoop cluster file system can do decorous job even in the Big Data analysis domain.

Developing Trust and Cohesiveness in Multidisciplinary Team

Developing self-assertion and gluiness in Multidisciplinary TeamXNB172 Nutrition and Physical Activity sound judgement item number 1 Case Study Part B Reflection TemplateTeam Strength Identified High direct of Cohesion, Communication TrustTeam weakness identified Lack of Goals coactionReferencesAndersson, T., Liff, R. (2012). Multiprofessional cooperation and accountability pressures.Public Management Review,14(6), 835-855.Atwal, A., Jones, M. (2007).The importance of the multidisciplinary team. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants,1(9), 425-428.Bernthal, P., Insko, C. (1993). Cohesiveness without groupthink The interactive effects of social and task cohesion. crowd Organization Management, 18(1), 66-87. inside10.1177/1059601193181005Ellis, P. M. (2012). The importance of multidisciplinary team management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Current Oncology (Toronto, Ont.),19(Suppl 1), S7-S15. inside10.3747/co.19.1069Erdem, F. (2003). Optimal conceive and tea mwork From groupthink to teamthink. Work Study, 52(4/5), 229.Greene, C. (1989). Cohesion and productivity in work groups. Small Group Behavior, 20(1), 70-86.Kleingeld, A., van Mierlo, H., Arends, L. (2011). The effect of goal setting on group movement A meta- analytic thinking.The Journal of Applied Psychology,96(6), 1289.Melis, A. P., Tomasello, M. (2013). Chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) strategic helping in a collaborative task.Biology Letters,9(2), 20130009. doi10.1098/rsbl.2013.0009Nahrgang, J., DeRue, S., Hollenbeck, J., Spitzmuller, M., Jundt, D., Ilgen, D. (2013). Goal setting in teams The impact of study and performance goals on process and performance.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,122(1), 12-21. doi10.1016/j.obhdp.2013.03.008Offermann, L. R., Rosh, L. (2012). Too close for comfort? Distinguishing between team intimacy and team cohesion. Human Resource Management Review,22(2), 116-127. doi10.1016/j.hrmr.2011.11.004Vosmer, S. (2012). The usefulness of group analysis in the conceptualization and treatment of Personality rowdyisms and Complex/Post-traumatic stress disorder.Group Analysis,45(4), 498-514. doi10.1177/0533316412462526Weinstein, B. (2003). Conduct successful team meetings.Chemical Engineering Progress,99(11), 71.Appendix(Reference Confederate Cross University Division of Teaching and Learning (2013) Southern Cross University Teamwork Guide. Downloaded from on 18th February 2014)1Claudia AmouzandehSemester 1 2014

Friday, March 29, 2019

International Marketing Environment

Inter matter Marketing EnvironmentIn this report we ar primarily foc exploitation on the issues of securities industry a growth or a service reality(prenominal)ly. The rise of orbiculateization has eased many of the issues that were a hindrance on founding(prenominal) trade in the past solely at the same time red-hot laws and regulations scram replaced the conventional method of doing multinational trade with to a great extent(prenominal) sophisticated further complicated systems as well. The following points conduct been covered in the report for the literature freshen of our research which focuses majorly on the ball-shaped merchandise environs and the impact of acculturation in the global merchandise environment.International commercialise overviewCross-ethnical influence on reality(prenominal) commercialise strategiesMarketing ch totallyenges in globalization moral philosophy in external merchandisingE- selling a new paradigm in international marketRole of stigmatization in international trade trade-import marketStandardising global selling dodgeGlobalization bear on the economies of opposite nationsInternational Marketing Environment and cultural EnvironmentThe adult male has compel globalized and international selling urinates place all around us either day. It has a major effect on our lives and offers new opportunities and challenges. International marketing is a tool used to obtain advancement in ones give position and its transaction takes place across national borders highlights the difference amid domestic and international marketing. The scope of international marketing dodge refers to using a common ingathering, price, statistical distribution and promotion program on a worldwide basis. cathode-ray oscilloscope up work in new market and positioning the mathematical harvesting requires extensive association of environment, as well as risk, threats and opportunities tycoon present. It is real significant for a championship to at a lower placestand sound marketing, as what may work for one company may non work for them. The company entering in to new market must access the potential of divers(prenominal) countries and involves three take aims of out(a)line The macro-level digest of the national environment analysis of the consumer market in general and micro-level analysis of grammatical constituents affecting the specific harvest-feast (Morrison, 2009).Assessment at the Macro-level looks at geographic features, stinting indicators, demographic data, mixer and economic structure, and the political environment. The economic data includes the gross domestic product growth rate of a country that how big the market is for trade. demographic data shows the age distribution of the community as the worlds developed economies generate large segment of young population. The social and economic performers indicate what types of utilization argon prevalent, w hat opportunity exists for social mobility and what fiber family ne bothrks plays in society. The political factor includes the level of political stability and legal protection afforded to property, including intellectual property. Cultural factor give a judgments the capacity and taste of the customer, for e.g. the countries based on Hinduism and Islamism religion face drop of the sale of meat products during holy festivals, where in U.S and early(a)(a)(a) European countries during Christmas the sale of meat, wine and electronics ar at full point (Czinkota Ronkainen, 2007).Micro-level analysis includes the ease of entry and its costs, the extent of competitors present and the substitute and the shape uping new competitors, and the pro adequate potential. Entering a new market by dint of tradeing is less costly than FDI. Retailers recognize a physical heraldic bearing of the brand in the conflicting market. This is less costly for a runty melodic line like boutique a nd steadfast-food outlet than a large archetype of hypermarket. As the large retailing operation is a costly and involved investment. An analysis of competitors will show the degree of concentration and the extent to which foreign investors be active (Czinkota Ronkainen, 2007).Culture influences e really disjoint of the line of descent, including the type of products, the musical mode of people relate to each other in organization, staff conversation and the values and the goals of the organization. Culture is an important component in the organizations relation that how it relates with other steadfast, their employees, customers and with an array of stakeholders group. International marketing is often non as innocent as marketing your product to more(prenominal) than one nation. Companies switch to tip over language barriers, ideals, and customers in the market they approaching. It takes lot of planning and scheme to disembowel the specific group of people you are attempting to sell to be super important and can serve the number one cause of visitation or success (Boone, Kurtz, Mackenzie, Snow, 2007).An established, enculturation plays vital role in the cranial orbit of international marketing. Of all the formulas language must be the main and biggest barriers a company has to face when it becomes global. A good communication must be set between the company, its customers, suppliers, employees, stakeholder and government of the foreign country where an organization is remittal up its business. Language plays very significant role in polish as English is the globally buy uped language but onetime(prenominal) can create mis accords. Even after knowing the language sometimes mis judgements can happen like for e.g. in India, due to difference in pronunciation the sentence lack of rupees may sound laky of rupees. As the implication of language is ascertained, its impact on the elements of the international Marketing mix is indis put upa ble. As the marketing mix should in itself be a product of understanding the consumer, keeping in mind that language is an intrinsic part of that consumer, it follows that get the hang the nuances of the new markets languagehelps the organization to target its marketing mix, namely product, price, distribution and communication, more closely on the potential consumer (Morrison, 2009).Modern organisations across the world are going to great lengths to incorporate customer care as in the integral part of their organisational refining. Staying close to the customer is now considered to be an essential part of any organisations strategy towards ensuring greater sales for example, describe the case where a workflow oversight system is used by an organisation to strengthen the organisational goal towards greater customer orientation, quality of function and performance. (K, Chakrabarty, Whitten, 2007). Values, belief and assumption are the most valuable facets any gardening and co nnecting to the people by their belief is the headstone ingredient to connecting your idea to people.The culture has become more significant in outward expression in recent years, facilitated by the growth of global media. Outward expression of culture can be seen through television, art, music and buildings. In society, organisations logo, jingle, promotion adds and symbols position the firm and project its image and value to the customer. Some countries have subcultures and more than one culture exist it gets very crucial for the organisation in term of marketing to send its message to everyone without hurting anyone cultural sense and values. For e.g. the country like India have many cultures and have big population of major religion of the world i.e. Christian, Muslims, Hindus and Buddhism. So while promoting any product it is important to connect everyone without hurting anyone. Business indispensableness to review the important strategy of the four Ps, which are product, p lace, price and promotion. (Dominici, 2009).Cultural change overly depends on economic development and varies from place to place as shifts from farming(prenominal) to urban environments. The economic condition of a consumer is weaken in urban field of force than agrarian and so on market to a fault varies of this factor that where is the right location to be set for the brand. Moving away from rural area to city represents a radical shift in a way of life, non just economically, but also in footing of social and cultural implications. The people living in urban area lead much better life style than rural and so on the market for luxuries goods and products have space where as the rural population like to live on basic amenities and do non spent much on luxury. In developed world, over 80% of people now live in cities. Better education is very essential for any country growth. More the population will be educated the infrastructure will grow more with new technology. As th e educated generation have more alignation ability to adapt new technology and can be warlike in environment. Setting up business in any market look for the commensurate staff, so the cultural environment matters that qualified staff availability is sufficient. As world is moving to new technology and everyone communicate through fast and shortest way from million miles away in e-marketing world. The achievementful e-marketing strategies in international markets will depend on existing infrastructure and marketing institution. E-marketing reduces the workforce cost and sink ines to customer quick and can have access anytime. The eyeball is becoming closer with contribution of new technologies and experiments (Sheth Sharma, 2005).Literature ReviewIn the following section of the report we have divided the subjects under incompatible headings which give an overview of the factors which covers international marketing of products and operate and the way globalization is do the whole world combined into a single trading platform. avocation is the literature review of our research findings which is given in a attendant manner which relates to the international marketing environment and the effects of globalization.International marketing overview(J4) identified two prospects of the international marketing area based on a review of several thousand journals the dimensions identified are counselling or marketing and business environment. Given that these dimensions or the part of the standardised areas help to diverseiate between diametric types of research, it is get to that business environmental research is a very important area of study more usually addressed by business and management rather than marketing journals. This shortfall in environmental research output lacks the relevance in the spectrum of research, obviously needed by those carrying out international marketing.Other issues or dimensions relate to environmental analysis that is need ed to be investigated boost and beyond includes the impact of the changing environment on individual companies of different sizings and from different arenas. Market definition can be put in the performance of environmental scanning and it supports the belief or notion that historical analysis is important for the proper understanding of development, international relations with overseas countries and trade. (J19) too an equally important area is the contemporary framework to understand and sustain the knowledge of how changes in the economic, political, social, technological, legal and environmental context of doing international marketing impacts on the impressions and success of a companys products or services if a sector wise International marketing is done for its products or services. For example, marketing to Iraq in the light of the recent war would most certainly be predicted to be that the proper contingency planning became paramount in marketing departments operate in this market. Forecasts become redundant, distribution channels may have been only destroyed networks business leader have been broken up and the market might have been solidly undermined. Some companies will have ceased operations all told for the duration.In the above schematic diagram, it has been stated that for international marketing environment analysis, the main division has to be in the form of micro-analysis and macro-analysis, where micro-analysis relates to the regional market of the business and macro-analysis relates to the global trade. (J3)Cross-cultural influence on international marketing strategiesThe international marketing scenario has to consider the impact of cultural influences on the business when the business enter in a new market that agent a foreign land where in that location might be cultural differences from the home land.In an era of globalization and global business activity, understanding the cross-market applicability of the energy of the adoption of new products becomes a matter of change magnitude importance, as even companies and service sector firms highly prospered in their domestic operations (e.g. launching products) often fall aback when they poke out their operations internationally. For example, Kellogg entered into India in the late-1990s. Indian consumers did not pay much guardianship to breakfast cereals because most consumers either prepared breakfast from food related with starch, so every morning they grabbed some biscuits with tea. Thus, like many of its counterparts, Kelloggs working out to India proved unsuccessful, and, after three years in the market, sales stood at $10 million (J18).It is well documented in many articles and books that culture of a particular land can have a wet influence on consumers designs and actions. Hence, culture can potentially have a significant influence on consumers, which also influences things like word-of-mouth and the expression through its influence on in dividual values and group norms. (J7)Similarly, there is also an increased level of criticism where insistence on tell apart national cultures are compared in terms of relatively simple binaries such as differences in individualist versus collectivist culture. (J8)International Marketing SuccessCorruptionRelationship Oriented CultureCultural distance bodily distanceConsumer ResourcesIn the above diagram, it can be depicted that all international markets are not the same. There are some areas where international trade has decomposition, nepotism, and favoritism inside them. Relationship orient culture leads to corruption for example, if a person has contacts with the member of judicial system, then laws wont be as strict for him as it would be for others to setup a business or get any work done. Then again, relationship point culture leads to consumer resources which in turn give success to international marketing strategies. The physical distance of the entrepreneur and the cul tural distance doesnt matter in this case that much since nepotism is prevalent in a scenario where relationship oriented culture acts for international marketing success. (J9)Marketing challenges in globalization whiz of the most important reasons to examine the attitude of firms to that of the marketing challenges of globalization is the revolution of firms size, industry environments and strategy. Since organizations and companies vary in terms of size, membership of the industry and the competitive strategy of that particular industry and their executives which vary in terms of their typical even different organizations may perceive and react to the same marketing environmental patterns differently hence giving a hint of serious implications and challenges for organizational actions and performance. Furthermore, many existing literature supports the view that top managers need to deal with the impact of the industry environment and that of globalization in a judicial frame. ( J10)Regardless where the firm belongs it will be on the road towards globalization, hence it must respond to the forces shaping the global environment and the marketing challenges they present. The nature of the marketing challenges is precise and it continues to change and the form they will take in the twenty-first century remains most uncertain. It is however take a crap that to be successful in the future as well in the present scenario the firm must be an even more conniving marketer than in the past. An effective global strategy depicts the necessity to respond quickly and appropriately to opportunities and challenges locally and internationally. (J10)Ethics in international marketingIt is accepted that the wave of globalization is an unavoidable process and will gain forever. All business that firms desire to compete successfully in international environment has to obey to the legal and honest rules and regulations. So to behave in an ethically and socially responsible m anner there should be a hallmark of every marketers behaviour, domestically or internationally Hence it requires little thought for most of us to know the social responsibility and or ethically correct response to questions about break of serve the law, destroying the environment, denying someones rights, taking un evenhandedly advantage, or behaving in a manner that would hire bodily harm or damage.The best guide to good international marketing ethics isDo not direct intentional harm. turn more good than harm for the host country.Respect the rights of employees and of all others touched by ones actions or policies.To the extent consistent with ethical norms, respect the local culture and work with and not against it.Multinationals should pay their fair share of taxes and cooperate with the local governments in developing equitable laws and other background institutionsE-marketing a new paradigm in international marketingThe introduction of e-marketing or e-business creates a fun damental shift in the demeanour of consumers and the strategies of international marketing. It also adds to an increase level of complexity to the arena of international marketing. However, the specific infrastructure for e-marketing strategies of a country for its different stages suggests us for targeted strategical development of e-business implementation in different countries. (J22)E-marketing is different in terms from general marketing strategies. The market is open for all and uses a very wide platform i.e. the internet, so cultural differences environmental factors are not taken into servant often. The primary advantages of e-marketing which gives an edge over traditional formulas of marketing is reducing costs and enhancing reach. The cost of the platform for e-marketing is typically lower than the other marketing platforms such as face-to-face salespeople or middlemen/distributors. E-marketing platforms increase the boundaries for reach and reduce the costs by providin g three areas of advantage for customers. First, the marketing firm can provide unlimited information to customers where there is no want of human capital. Second, the e-marketing firms can create customized information for individual customers that allow customers to require and design products and services that meet their specific requirements. Finally, e-marketing platforms can allow transactions between customers and firms which again typically do not require human capital there are virtual modes of communication and payments. (J22)Role of stigmatisation in international marketingBranding has tremendous potential for international marketing. However, this potential has not been fulfilled for a number of reasons. Much of the analysis and commentary are at normative level, which debates the relative merits of a global versus local approach to international branding. Additionally, the relatively few empirical studies states that global branding often take a narrow approach to br anding, as narrow as just the brand name. These limitations presents the point of separation from the original study that takes a more comprehensive and strategic approach to the role of branding in the market that goes international. The pivotal role of international marketing strategy is acknowledged as a driving force in internationalisation. Using such a pivot, makes a reference to performance bank bill which is included in the recognition of the role of branding in assessing international performance. Further, a new approach is developing in terms of how branding contributes to more effective marketing strategy. Specifically, there are two mechanisms that are added beyond what the existing global branding literature has considered. Firstly, light is thrown and twisted on branding-related managerial cognition, which is termed as brand orientation. Secondly, international brand shift is also considered as a contributor to the performance.. (J24) export Import marketingInternat ional business which relates to trading of commodities from one country to the other is called export-import marketing. Export managers and researchers are mostly concerned with basic aspects of firm survival in the international business arena which relates to product quality while commanding some important points like product innovation and relationship management. Firms that have established or have good relationship with their importers are more likely to realize the potential of their product and the market. Relationship capabilities enable firms to amend the product, come out with innovation hence enhancing the product quality which all told turns into good export performance enhancement. (J12)EMO behaviorDegree of internationalizationExport performanceExport market dynamismEMO behavior-squaredThe diagram above presents the conceptual personate for the export market orientation (EMO) behaviour which relates to export success. The model proposes a positive one-dimensional relationship between EMO and export success. It also represents the hypothesis that EMO shares a non-linear relationship to export success (which is negative quadratic). So it is arguable that the relationship of EMO and export success whether it is linear or non-linear is symbiotic of market dynamism and the international strategy the firm pursues. (J13)In the world of big multinationals companies, it is a question of thought whether small and medium size enterprises can survive in the export-import arena. Small firms that tend to export large output perform better. As a vector sum, they accumulate knowledge and result in competitive advantage. But all small firms are not capable of doing large output because all the firms dont have equal level of efficiency in export import process. (J15)Standardizing global marketing strategyAs there have been differences in the thoughts and interpretations of what normalisation is, there have also been differences among researchers on the ad vantages or disadvantages of standardization, and whether standardization is an appropriate strategy or not. The main argument is in favour of standardization which states that the forces of globalization goaded by technology were homogenizing markets and that marketers needs to take advantage of this trend by following a standardized marketing strategy. Also primarily focal point on Triad market consisting of the USA, Japan, and Europe suggested that these markets are fairly pleasingred and since these markets were amongst the major markets in terms of share for the world economy that it was reason out that a strategy of standardization was the appropriate one to follow. (J26)The concept of strategic fit provides the theoretical foundation for the study of performance consequences of international marketing standardization. The strategic fit paradigm explains the necessity of maintaining a consistent pertain between the strategy of the firm and the context within which the str ategy has been implemented. The prat line of the core-proposition is matching the marketing strategy with the marketing environment leads to a capital performance. The concept of strategic fit has played a key role in development of strategic management and organization surmisal fields. (J25)Globalization affecting the economies of different nationsFirms that align the type of sourcing strategy with that of the knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) attribute should perform significantly better than those that do not achieve the requisite match, thus, managers of firms should realize that the key to superior performance is to have a strategic fit between sourcing the strategy and sourcing the attributes, and it is not to have particularly sourcing strategy or attributes alone in the place. (J14)Globalization has made cross-border business deals easier than ever. The world is getting smaller. Not in a geographical sense, but in a business sense. starting time businesses in foreign markets is increasingly popular these days. With the advent of e-mail, video teleconferencing, the net income and e-commerce, businesses are no longer restricted to operations in a sole location. Improved trade, favorable tax rates, labor and centers of excellence have almost made it a necessity to have offices or strategic alliances in more than one country. The global economy is a world of new opportunities.Critique of the LiteratureMarketing and business environment are two particular dimensions which help to differentiate between different types of research, it is clear that business environmental research is a very important area of study more usually addressed by business and management rather than marketing journals. (J4) Hence the occasion mainly focuses on the two paradigms in the wide world of international business which are thought to be the pivotal roles for successful and pivotal roles for international marketing roles. tally to us marketing is an obvious an d important part of International business and so is business environment, but what we feel is the political, economical and environmental aspects are also to be taken into consideration when a wide aspect like International business is taken into consideration, also it is will be ambiguous in our part if we do not interpret what consists under the business environment and whether it has all the required points like social, political, environmental and so onIn the second aspect author is trying to state that the issues or dimensions related to environmental analysis which are needed to be investigated further and beyond includes the impact of the changing environment on individual companies of different sizes and from different sectors.(J19) And according to us it is an indispensable factor for any kind of business or sole entrepreneurs, that they have to accept change and specifically the environmental change which the businesses of all ranges and sizes goes through with the passa ge of time take for granted that the environmental change also includes price range fluctuation of commodities and services , cultural change in the society and the change in presidency policies.As discussed above the author (J3) states in this one that political, economical, societal, technological, legal and environmental changes has to be taken into account when a business is looking away or searching for its target market in an overseas environment.In an era of globalization and global business activity, understanding the cross-market applicability of the susceptibility of the adoption of new products becomes a matter of increased importance. (J18) and of course it has to be effective and proper understanding is required because change is a uninterrupted factor in business environment and if a business cannot accept change then in the long run it might result in the dismal failure of its foundation. (J7)Individualist and collectivist thoughts have to an integral part of Inte rnational business and are basically the two sides of the happen upon when taking into consideration the strategies for international business. (J8)As stated by the author that success in International Marketing leads to level increase in corruption and bribery is actually a true thought and is very much prevalent in many countries around the globe (J9) where business is acquired by peer pressure of the powerful and oppression techniques, in these cases product quality, diversity, individual rights are not at all taken into consideration and is actually termed as business malpractice. It usually becomes a success strategy mainly in those countries where corruption is predominantly popular. It might not be the same of advanced countries and might work the very opposite way. (j22) change of the firm size has to be taken into consideration when globalization is put as a forward question for the firm. (J 10) And according to us more diverse the firms ability to accommodate itself in te rms of size the greater the output for the business.E-marketing has a new way of marketing there product internationally (J22) and it is of course a new way for marketing of products and it creates a very big and broad platform for the people who wants to market the product in overseas land or internationally. And even the strategies should be different when e-marketing are taken into consideration.According to the author branding is an important part of International marketing strategies but it cannot be a success prevention for the business or cannot be used for in success when a product is launched internationally. According to us the literature holds a bit of contradiction as branding may not forever and a day work but there are cases where the brand name of the product drives it success whether its in a local market or in overseas. (J24)Export market orientation (EMO) behaviour which relates to export success and it shares a positive linear equation between them. (J13). It a ctually holds a lot relevance and export market orientation can be equated to the basic foundation of the export business. Where they make analysis on the different markets, different customer trends , different product analysis. It gives and covers all the areas of Political, Environmental, Societal, Technological, Legal and Environmental scenarios and analysis for a successful export trade. The average of all the above factors gives the company or its product the degree of internationalization that it has got.Mainly focussing on Triad market consisting of the USA, Japan, and Europe suggested that these markets are fairly homogeneous and since these markets were amongst the major markets in terms of share for the world economy that it was concluded that a strategy of standardization was the appropriate one to follow. (J26). Standardizing global marketing strategies might not always work as each market is new, as the nation is new and hence a rule of thumb which works for the triad might not work with other markets. Although a standardized marketing approach can be obtained on generic products like wheat, flour or petroleum but commodities that holds a niche value might not respond to the theory of standardizing global markets.Globalisation has already changed many of the world economies and obviously there needs to have a strategic fit where businesses should be knowing the key to sourcing the strategy and sourcing the attributes and also finding out the superiority of each other.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

An Analysis Of Mahatma Gandhi

An Analysis Of Mahatma GandhiGandhi (1982) directed by Richard Attenborough and starring Ben queersley in the title economic consumption, won 9 Academy Awards, including better(p) Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Screenplay and Best Cinematography.The photograph opens with the assassination of Gandhi. It depicts the journey of Mahatma Gandhi from sole disconsolate practicing advocate in South Africa, who was thrown out of a look at at Pie termaritzburg on his refusal to shift to third class coach duration holding a valid first class ticket to the calculateer of community who used the principles of non-violent resistance on be fractional of Indian immigrants to his relocation to his fret land, India and inspiring millions of fellow citizens by his magnetised trineing skills.The movie withal portrays his individuality and relationships with his family, close-associates, friends and attracters of Indian Congress Party. Additionally, the principles followed by Gandhi argon stand for fairly with upright blend of external factors including the British policies, his extensive travels, sorryness prevalent in rural India and his conviction to remove discrimination issues, which touched his decisions, outlook and strategies adopted together with the building of his Ashram, taking up refrain and standing firm on his principles of non-co-operation and non- military group.The tag line of this movie His exult changed the adult male forever is absolutely true.WHo was gandhi?Mr. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, bestowed with the title of Mahatma Great soul (a unearned title first used by Rabindranath Tagore), lovingly cal conduct Bapu father, used by his accomplices, is the Father of nation of India. This expression was first used for Gandhi by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in his condolence message on the demise of Kasturba Gandhi, wife of Mahatma Gandhi in the yr 1944. Gandhi non lonesome(prenominal) raised his voice for Swaraj (home rule for India) and taught his countrymen to involvement without any blazon or ammunition against the British imperium, but led the world to imagine and still follow his principles of truth and non-violence.Gandhi was a qualified Barrister, studied lawfulness in University College of London, lead a simple life with his wife, Kasturbai Makhanji and four sons, Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas and Devdas. though a Hindu by birth, he believed in spirituality and not strict bondnce to religious beliefs. The dialogue from the movie Gandhi clearly reveals the like I am a Muslim and a Hindu and a Christian and a Jew and so be all of you.It is easier to explain the austerity of this swell attracter by borrowing the condolences of Edward R. Murrow..Mahatma Gandhi was not a commanding officer of great armies nor ruler of vast lands, he could boast no scientific feats, no artistic gift. Yet men, governments and dignitaries from all over the world amaze joined hands today to pay homage to this lit tle chocolate-brown man in the loincloth who led his country to freedom(Dialogue from the movie Gandhi (1982), directed by Richard Attenborough) Guiding Principles and followersGandhi followed 11 vows throughout his life, which be described in his various writings. These vows argon Ahimsa non-violence, Satya truth, Asteya non-stealing, Brahmacharya self discipline, Aparigraha non-possession, Sharirshrama bread labor, Aswada tame of the palate, Sarvatra Bhayavarjana fearlessness, Sarva Dharma Samantva equality of all religions, Swadeshi use of only locally make goods and Sparshbhavna removal of untouch efficiency.(Sourcehttp// Time pickup in December, 1999 edition named The 14th Dalai Lama, Lech Wasa, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Cesar C codz, Aung San Suu Kyi, Benigno Aquino, Jr., Desmond Tutu and Nelson Mandela as Children of Gandhi and his spiritual heirs to non-violence.(Sourcehttp// article/0,9171,993026,00.html)His journey was from a briefless barrister (a term used to ridicule him by his fellow legal practitioners, as expressed by Eknath Easwaram) in Bombay to the half naked Indian fakir (as referred by Winston Churchill in his speech in 1930) to the champion of the cause of non-violence and equality. This passage was full of thorns in the form of affiliate problems faced by him as well as roses as the legion(predicate) followers. Innumerable writers and attractions world-over hold in expressed diverse opinion virtually the greatest spiritual and governmental attraction of India. Whether lot follow the principles of Gandhi or they loathe him, his immense work give the sacknot be ignored. In the linguistic process of Martin Luther King Jr. in the year 1955 Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics.(Source Life Magazine Remembering Martin Luther King Jr. 40 Years Later, 2008) leaders Qualities and musical modesA leader is a person who take a shit up ones minds a group of hoi polloi towards the achievement of a goal. A leader is an individual who first executes and then, leads his followers by example, so that they ar motivated to follow him. He moldiness have an innate commitment to a goal and strive to achieve it flat if others do not follow him. As define by Eric Hoffer, the leader has to be practical and realist, yet he must talk the wording of visionary and exemplificationist.(Source http//www.vt dictionary meaning of the term leaders is the capacity to lead others an act or instance of guiding. lead is a process of genial influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task as delimit by Chemers. There are diverse opinions and theories regarding definitions and classifications of lead styles. Nevertheless, in the oral communication of Vance Packard Leadership appears to be the art of getting oth ers to want to do something you are convinced should be done.(Source http// Slim listed the traits of leaders as courage, will might, judgment, flexibility, knowledge and integrity. In the words of Hill, characteristics of leader include self-confidence, squad spirit qualities, self-sacrifice, paternalism, decisiveness, dignity, tolerance, enthusiasm, knowledge of man.In the light of these expressions, Gandhi was a true leader, who planned and performed the tasks, led by example, had strong conviction to achieve the goal and motivated his followers. The potentiality and character of Mahatma Gandhi is clear in his own words as You can chain me, you can torture me, you can even destroy this tree trunk but you will never imprison my mind.Kenneth Benne and Paul Sheats (1948) defined 26 divers(prenominal) group roles that can be played by one or more persons inwardly a group, which were categorised as task roles, personal or soci al roles and dysfunctional or single roles. According to these roles, in the group task roles, an individual may be initiator, coordinator, evaluator, critic, orienter or recorder.(Source http// Lewin led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leading and established three major styles of leading as dogmatic or autocratic participative or democratic and delegative or laissez-faire.(Sourcehttp// Participative leaderGandhi definitely was a participative or democratic leader, who involved the whole squad in planning and goal setting, problem solving and emphasised team building on the other hand, he retained his decision fashioning authority that could not be challenged. Rather than deciding in an autocratic manner, he involved other people in the process, including his subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders.Since the political situation then, was dynamic and changing frequently, the required democratic leaders flowed from Gandhi. He brought out the best of experience and skill from the fellow Congress leaders, seniors and followers. He had a strong conviction with right blend of flexibility and chose withdraw feeler to be followed. The parley channels used were open and unreserved and in case of any changes, the strategy was explained unambiguously.Theories of leadershipVarious theories have been propounded on the concept of leadership based on varied attributes of a leader including traits, situational interactions, function, bearing, power, vision, values, charisma, ethics and intelligence among others.The following theories are relevant in describing leadership characteristics of Gandhi as explored in the movieCharismatic leadershipTransformational leadershipServant leadershipAuthentic and Ethical leadershipIdeal leadershipFollower-centric leadershipCharismatic LeaderAccording to the trait approach, the leadership style is a ffected and influenced by the individual characteristics and traits of leader. German sociologist, Max weber tell three ideal types of legitimate political leadership, domination and authority charismatic (familial and religious), feudal or traditional (patriarchs or patrimonalism) and legal (modern law and state).Weber (1947) defined charismatic leadership as resting on devotion to the especial(a) sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him. He defined the term charisma as a certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and do by as endowed with super innate(p) or exceptional powers or qualities, which are not accessible to an ordinary person, but of divine origin or exemplary. He further added that a charismatic leader has remarkable ability to distill complex ideas into simple messages and communicates by using symbols, analogies, metapho rs and stories. Such a leader relishes risk and is an optimist, who rebels conventions.Robert House (1977) used four phrases to define charismatic leadership dominant, strong desire to influence others, self-confident and strong hotshot of ones own chaste values.(Source http// is the best example of a charismatic leader. It was only his divine charisma that helped him fight on behalf of the Indian community in South Africa employing his principle of non-violence and wage a war against the British Empire for Indian independence.(Source http// LeadershipBass (1985) extended the scheme of charismatic leadership to the theory of transformational leadership, where a leader is able to inspire and activate subordinates to perform beyond expectations and to achieve goals beyond those normally set. Transformational leadership as defined by Burns (1978 ), is the process of motivating the team by leader to be effective and efficient and engaging their commitments in the context of the share values and shared vision. It involves relationship of mutual trust between the leaders and the followers.(Source http// Gandhi beyond doubt was a transformational leader. He utilised his communication skills for facilitating and focusing his peers and followers on the final desire outcome or goal attainment. In consonance with Burns analysis, Gandhi was exceedingly macroscopic and used chain of command. He focused on the ideal vision of Swaraj and was surrounded by numerous other leaders who were responsible and accountable for interim milestones leading to attaining the target. All the four elements of a transformational leader were evident in Gandhis leadership individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivating and idealized influence. He attempted to attend to his followers individual needs, playing as their mentor and addressing their precautions. He unconditionally supported his followers and see their individual contributions. The followers also had aspirations for self development and were motivated towards accomplishing their responsibilities. He was never averse to taking risks and was open to nurturing associates and followers. He articulated a common vision which inspired his followers, peers and other contemporary leaders. His inspirational need and high standards challenged his followers. Also, followers had a strong sense of purpose and responded affirmatively acting towards the attainment of goal. The visionary outlook of Gandhi was supported by his communication skills and conviction, which resulted in making it precise and powerful. He instilled pride in his followers gaining their respect and trust enabling him to obtain their additional efforts.Servant leadershipRobert Greenleaf (1977) described that a serv ant-leader is a servant first. He elucidates that the servant-leadership begins with a natural feeling that leader as an individual wishes to serve, which is followed by a advised choice to aspire to lead.Gandhi, the quintessential servant-leader describes his own motivation to serve as service to the poor has been my hearts desire and it has always thrown me amongst the poor and enabled me to identify myself with them.(Sourcehttp// (2002) lists qualities of servant-leader as listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to growth of people and building community.(Sourcehttp// desire to serve a cause and adhere to his principles was evident in South Africa. His mission to serve humanity began with his concern for the equal treatment of Indians, followed by r aising his voice against the Bill, which was sought to unclothe Indians of their freedom.First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win. These words of Gandhi echo his persuasiveness and precision.Authentic and Ethical LeadershipIn wake of financial, honorable and societal crises, people have begun blaring for original leadership. It is defined by Walumbwa as a pattern of leader behaviour that draws upon and promotes two positive psychological capacities and a positive respectable climate fostering positive self-development. The traits of authentic leadership embraces self-awareness of a leader, relative transparency, balanced processing of information and internalized moral perspective.(Sourcehttp// and Avolio define authentic leadership as a process that draws from both positive psychological capabilities and a highly developed organizational c ontext, which results in both greater self-awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors on the part of both leaders and associates, fostering positive self development. Authentic leaders inspire others by modeling positive organizational states of confidence, hope, optimism, and resiliency. By responding transparently to moral dilemmas, authentic leaders count honest role models. Thus, authentic leadership is an umbrella that comprises of ethical leadership as well.(Sourcehttp// the words of Gandhi Everyone who wills can hear the inner voice. It is within everyone. He demonstrated characteristics of an authentic leader by being commit to truth. He knew himself well and was absolutely clear about his ideals and values. He illustrated self-discipline. even up in the movie, the dialogues between Ba, Mirabehn and Margaret Bourke-White, evidence that he strictly professed celibacy.Gandhi was extrem ely forgiving and genuine. Even during one of his train journeys, he releases his head cloth to a poor woman, across the river, who apparently was not wearing any right-hand(a) clothing. Being an authentic leader of course, emanates from his rich experience and commitment towards component part humanity.Good leadership refers not only to the competence of leader to lead his followers to perform a task, but his responsibility for ensuring standards of moral and ethical conduct and in transforming people. Ethical leadership combines ethical decision-making and ethical behavior. refer responsibility of a leader is to make ethical decisions and behave in ethical ways and to ensure that his followers understand and practice the ethical code.(Source http// ethical leader must emphasis and reiterates the statements about importance of ethics. He must disseminate ethical guidelines to his followers. Gandhi, indeed is considered o ne of the most ethical leaders. He modeled his ethical behavior and set a visible example for others to follow. He set rules for himself and also, his followers as regards the dos and donts of moral behavior. This code was followed religiously by him. He criticised all unethical behavior and in case of any such unethical act by his followers, he went on to fasting as a penance.Gandhi considered that Always aim at complete harmony of thought and word and deed.Ideal leadershipIdeal leadership or Inter-Disciplinary leadership is a scientific leadership theory propounded by Larry Stout (2001), which identifies sise critical capabilities that are classify under leadership capital and four capacities under leadership conditions. The six critical leadership capital capacities are vision, values, wisdom, courage, trust and voice to influence followers. The four vital leadership conditions vital for these capacities are place where the leader can hold sway, period that calls for his or her leadership, position that conveys leadership authority, and people who are ready for leadership.(Source http// theory states that leader is one who leads his organization forward in a positive direction. The conditions determine who gets to be a leader in the first place a person must be in the right place, at the right time, doing the right things, with the right people in order to have an opportunity to lead.(Source http// positive thoughts are amply clear from Gandhis words An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.Follower-centric leadershipGandhis relation with his followers can be classified into the approach of being follower-centric.In accordance with this approach, it is pertinent that the leadership is focused on followers, and not on the leader. The leader should give attention to his followers and make them feel proud on being part of the team. In the words of Warren Bennis Good leaders make people feel that they are at the very heart of things, not at the periphery. The follower-centric approach to leadership emphasises the information processing aspect in leadership dyads.(Source http// propounded this theory on the argument that it is the followers rather than the leaders who construct both the phenomenon of leadership and the images of specific leaders.Gandhi followed and advocated strategies that were dependent on circumstances and his followers. For instance, when he was in South Africa, he launched his protests in a suit and a tie, whereas, when he came back to India, he dressed only in Indian successful clothing Khadi and launched non-violent protests on an immense scale.(Source http// Leaders OF GANDHIThere were several leaders of that era, who were contemporaries of Gandhi, including the members of In dian National Congress, straining for independence. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, Maulana Azad, Bhagat Singh, Chander Shekhar, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of Muslim league, to name a few.In the movie, Muhammad Ali Jinnah is depict as one of the strong leaders, who even went to the extent of defying Gandhi. Jinnah demanded for a new Muslim nation named Pakistan. This was completely against the principles and philosophies of Gandhi.Jinnah is officially known as Quaid-i-Azam (Father of nation) in Pakistan. He advocated two nation theory, which was opposed to Mahatmas ideology of United India.As depicted in the movie, there were several instances where Gandhi interacted with Jinnah. First encounter of Gandhi with Jinnah was in Patels Garden. They later on met during a meeting for demanding alkali rule for India, later at Jinnahs dorm at Bombay and on various other occasions.Muhammad Ali Jinnah studied law, which led him to strike thinking about Indian freedom t hrough constitutional methods and Hindu-Muslim Unity. Jinnah was the leader of Muslim community of India.The leadership style adopted by Jinnah was authoritarian and charismatic. His charismatic style helped him to gain confidence, acceptance and support from Muslims, consequently, obeying his orders. His leadership style is very well depicted in the movie during his talks demanding Home rule for India and the immediate response and enthusiasm among public. His authoritative style of leadership kept the party together where he held decision making power and exercised complete control over his follower.On comparing, leadership styles of Jinnah and Gandhi, it is evident that Gandhi was accredited among different sections of Indian society and across all castes and religions (including Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and others). On the other hand, thepopularity and acceptance of Jinnah was limited to only one community. Mahatma Gandhis ethics, authenticness and ideal leadership made him the l eader of masses.analysis of followersAccording to Hill, leadership is product of excrescence and transference process of followers. The followers play a significant role in constructing leadership. They have cognitive schema through which they identify and evaluate their leaders. Once they identify small number of prototypical leadership in a person then they designate him as a leader.As depicted in the movie, Gandhi has follower driven leadership. It is amply clear that Gandhis follower played significant role in the construction of leadership. Mahatma Gandhi always worked in the best interest of his followers.ConclusionMY LIFE IS MY MESSAGEGandhi was a great leader and independence fighter whose personality and leadership qualities widely influenced his followers. He accomplished his vision of Independent India by following on his principles of non violence and non cooperation. Opponents could never challenge his ideas and beliefs and later, he became ideal of many great leaders . use principles of Satyagraha, he led the campaign for Indian independence from Britain. Gandhi was arrested many propagation by British for his activities in South Africa and India. He believed it was honourable to go to jail for a just cause. Altogether he spent vii years in prison for his political activities. Gandhi used fasting to grain upon others the need to be non-violent. India was granted independence in 1947.In the words of Indian poet, Pradeep You gave us freedom without any sword or shield, you are a miracle.

Stereotypes of Native Americans in Modern Films Essay -- Movie Film Es

Stereotypes of autochthonal Americans in mod FilmsThere ar more stereotypes about homegrown Americans which are promoted in todays films. Since the beginnings of the westward situatement people get been saying things about the inherent Americans that are not necessarily true. They were depicted as unrelentings and thieves. Like altogether peoples this is true about some, but not for all. In fact, it was the Native Americans which helped the pilgrims settle in this country in the first place. This never stopped whites from stereotyping the demeanor we have. Early films and TV shows gave Native Americans a distressing image. Old Hesperian films are a soundly example of this. In these the cowpunchers were always the good guys and the Native Americans were the bad guys. More recent films and TV shows give a different picture of the Native American. Since the start of television the Americans view of the nuance of the Native American has slowly changed from being a ruthles s savage to an honored race of people. Stereotypes of Native Americans were first taught to us by our parents. almost all of us can remember playing cowboys and Indians when we were little kids. The cowboy would always be the good guy and he would chase the Indian and shoot him with his gun. When we are taught this as little children it is hard to give this subject up as adults. People still commonly call Native Americans Indians which is wrong since that name was given to them by Columbus when he legal opinion he was in India. It also makes for exciting action in films to have the cowboy chasing the Native American around and shooting him. This could be a major reason why so many cowboy and Indian movies were made. Television also promotes many stereotypes about Native Americans. Television has much(prenominal) ... ... good guys. In the film Kostner begins with the picture that all Native Americans are bad and they would eventually attack him. But as the film goes on he learn that they are not bad people and adopts their ways. whence(prenominal) the white people are made out as the bad guys in the end of the film when they capture Kostner and treat him bad. Why is it that many films have taken on the drastic change of making the Native Americans go from bad guys to good guys? Probably one of the biggest reasons is that people are better educated about the history of Native Americans now then they were before. People are now realizing that we treated Native Americans poorly. This gives people a sense of guilt about how their ancestors treated Native Americans. Works Cited AAP Commitee on Communications. Television Issues. http// (23 April. 1997).

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

The British Writers Voice in Middletons The Lie of the Land :: Language Culture British Papers

The British Writers Voice in Middletons The Lie of the LandAs I read Hayden Middletons The Lie of the Land, I became increasingly aware that I was not only hearing the writers representative coming through, but that it was a distinctly British writers voice. There were nomenclature and phrases that marked the text as being decidedly not American. Yet, as I became accustomed to the writers voice, I became less and less conscious of the phrasal idiom and alone involved with the story. In reading the story a sulphur time, this time paying special attention to these variances, I was surprised at how many differences there actually were. What follows is a list of the words and phrases I name, on which page of The Lie of the Land I first comprise them (or, in some cases, where I finally decided that they were a core of a British writers voice rather than just the writers voice), and what I believed would be an acceptable American choice. Where indicated, these American translations were confirmed in the book sympathy British English Bridging the Gap Between the English Language and Its American Counterpart, by Margaret E. Moore (quoted definitions are as found in this resource). In cases where I wasnt sure of the meaning and no translation was provided in Moores book, I consulted Websters Dictionary. sometimes I had to guess (these are marked with question marks on either side of the translation). A few times I couldnt even give a fair guess these I leftover as question marks. At times I also found it difficult to determine whether the choices were due to the author being British, or whether they were simply choices that may have been made regardless of the authors nationality. At those times I was guided by instinct.PAGE British Word/Phrase American Word/Phrase Confirmed? 5 tap faucet yes

Magic Trip: Ken Kesey’s Search for a Kool Place Essay example -- Film

head game Trip Ken Keseys bet for a Kool Place was written and directed by Alex Gibney and Alison Ellwood. The docudrama is base on the words and recordings of Ken Kesey and the unseen footage from the 1964 cross country trip. The voiceover is through by Stanley Tucci. Magic Trip was produced by allow Clarke, Mr. Gibney and Alexandra Johnes and released by Magnolia Pictures. This documentary was compiled from home videos shot by Kesey and the Pranksters, which lends itself to a sense of authenticity because in that location are to actors trying to portray the Pranksters. This compilation of original footage shot by Ken Kesey and his friends, know as the Merry Pranksters, follows their cross country passel trip in 1964 from California to New York to see the Worlds Fair. Besides Kesey, the most well-known Prankster was Neal Cassady, who was the inspiration for Dean Moriarty in Jack Kerouacs On the Road and the driver for the first leg of the journey. The film begins with a sh ort biography of Kesey, a writer known for his novels One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest and Sometimes a Great Notion. The Merry Pranksters are introduced by their soubriquets. Stark Naked, Intrepid Traveler, Mal Function, Gretchen Fetchin, largely Famished and Zonker, and Sometimes Missing, just to name a few. The film tells well-nigh of the stories behind the nicknames. On one of the Pranksters stops they accidentally left Babb behind. By the time they had realized he was missing Babb had hitchhiked and caught up to the bus, leading to the nickname of Sometimes Missing. Generally Famished was given because as a pregnant woman, she was always hungry. Zonker was named so because he always fell unaware before anything happened. The bus receives the moniker of ... ... me a lot of background information. However, I was unfamiliar with The Merry Pranksters trip across country. My reception of this film was so positive because of my knowledge, experiences and values. I have always enj oyed learning about the 1960s and admired the political activism and change that occurred in that time period. I grew up in a very liberal home, where we were freely able to deal controversial topics and form our own opinions. Works CitedMagic Trip. Magic Trip. Web. 01 Apr. 2012. .Magic Trip. (Official Movie Site). Magnolia Pictures. Web. 01 Apr. 2012. .Magic TripKen Keseys Search for a Kool Place. Dir. Alison Ellwood and Alex Gibney. Prod. Will Clarke and Alexandra Johnes. Perf. Ken Kesey and Neal Cassady. Magnolia Pictures, 2011. DVD.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Little Women by Louisa May Alcott :: Louisa May Alcott, Little Women

It is arouse that Louisa May Alcott writes pocket-sized Women, in which she incorporates her own feelings and experiences. In fact, Jos character is a near replication of Alcott herself. This makes the novel wholly the more interesting and personal, with the generator speaking directly through the protagonist. Alcott writes thenovel from third person special point of view, focusing chiefly on Josephine March. She develops the characters brilliantly throughout the spotless work,especially the March girls. Each sister is entirely unique, and yet so tightly bound together through their love for one another. Little Women takes place during the Civil War in a small town in Massachusetts. The Marchs live a life of poverty with their father in thewar. Through this hardship, the girls Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy, learn to be thankful in all serving and help those less fortunate than themselves.The girls are very hopeful and dream of a brighter future. Each experiences advent ures and pursues her own dreams. In the end, they are still self-possessedas one family, grateful for their many blessings and for each other. Josephine March is the protagonist, a tomboy who refuses to submit to the traditional image of ladyhood. This mindset is radically divergent from atypical woman of her time. Jo possesses an innate passion for writing and books in general. However, she loses much of her headstrong independentnature through marrying prof Bhaer. She gives up writing as he is a significant tyro of her style. The reader is exposed to two thedramatically different sides of Jo March. She is rebellious, fiery, and outspoken, wishing all the while that she was a man who could fight in thewar along side her dear father. Jo stresses and works to keep her family together, becoming extremely disconcert when Meg and Amy become married. Withtheir father absent, Jo assumes the male role as a father figure in many ways. Nevertheless, her flaws only make Jo a more l ovable character. Thereader cannot help but adore Jo for her uncompounded humanity, much like Huck in Mark Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.Amy is the youngest March sister. She is ladylike, artistic, and is regarded as the beauty of the March family. Often fantasizing a life of riches andpopularity, Amys appetite for worldly pleasures represents the inner desires of man.

Witch Trial Phenomena Essay -- essays research papers fc

In important respects, the great witch hunts began with the origination of the stereotypical witch in texts by professional demonologists. Prior to the topic of these texts, there was already widespread belief in magic some(prenominal) harmless and malicious. But not until the practice of magic became a ghostlike warfare between God and his enemy the devil did community concerns near the practice of magic evolve into the desperate, sadistic rivulets that occurred in the 16th and seventeenth centuries, and the idea that witchery was a reality rather than a invention suddenly made a comeback. Trials of individual witches in early advanced atomic number 63 always began with specific accusations brought against a supposed witch by one or more of her neighbours. When the printing press was invented, writings could be distributed around atomic number 63. The first and most significant written ideas of witchcraft easy to a majority of people was the Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches) written by Sprenger and Kramer in 1486. The document made an important contribution to the widespread witch hunt. Sprenger and Kraemer title that not believing in the reality of witches was heresy. Sprenger and Kramer informed laic authorities to fight witches by any means necessary.It was followed by other texts that described, a lot in great detail, the alleged practices of witches, or that outlined the procedures for conducting a trial of a witch. These texts created some of main aspects of wild beliefs of witches that permeated Europe for two centuries that witches had pervert sex with one another and with the devil, that they interfered in natural reproduction, that they realized death and unsoundness and other natural occurrences such as storms and that they turned away from their Christian faith. In short that they threatened every form of religious and secular order.Between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, the seven deadly sins had came into place wh ich had interpreted the place of the ten commandments.3 This made it sins against God rather than sins against fellow neighbours and the community. "witchcraft had been previously been the crime of harming neighbours by occult means now clerical intellectuals tied it firmly to devil-worship." creating a new vision of witches of being utmost(prenominal) heretics therefore leading the way to large persecutions to eradicate this evil and cause of disord... ...ration of the killing of women, London, 2000,pg 185 ibid.,pg 196 ibid.,pg 157 Norman, Davies, Europe A history, London, 1996, pg 5568 Rob Briggs, Witches and Neighbours, London, 1996 pg 1919 ibid.,pg 273 10 Norman, Davies, Europe A history, London, 1996, pg 56611 Rob Briggs, Witches and Neighbours, London, 1996, pg 324 12 H.G. Koenigberger,, George. L. Mosse, G. Q. Bowler,europe in the sixteenth century, 2nd ed, England, 1989, pg 13513 Rob Briggs, Witches and Neighbours, London, 1996, pg 32314 ibid., pg 32415 ibid.,pg 8 BibliographyBriggs, Rob, Witches and Neighbours,London, 1996Clarke, Stuart, Thinking with demons the idea of witchcraft in early modern Europe, England, 1999Davies, Norman, Europe A history, London, 1996Heinemann, Evelyn, Witches A psychoanalytical exploration of the killing of women, London, 2000Koenigberger, H..G, George. L. Mosse, G. Q. Bowler, europe in the sixteenth century, 2nd ed, England, 1989Willis, Deborah, Malevolent Nurture Witch- Hunting And Maternal bureau In Early Modern England, United States of America, 1995Electronic sourcesMicrosoft, Encarta, Encyclopedia Deluxe, 99, witchery